二氧化氯-MSDS化学品安全技术说明书

发表时间:2011-10-31浏?#26469;?#25968;: 评论: 分享: 顶: 踩:

品名

二氧化氯; Chlorine dioxide; Chlorine oxide; CAS:10049-04-4

理化性质

室温?#34109;?#40644;色至红黄色气体。具有明显刺激气味。分子式ClO2。分子量67.46。密度3.09g/l(11℃)。熔点-59.5℃。沸点9.9℃[97.4 4kPa(731mmHg)]。溶于水、碱、硫酸。强氧化剂。少量水解生成氯酸、亚氯酸。加热分解放出氯气。遇光不稳定,如纯时,在暗处是稳。遇太阳光、热、与汞或一氧化碳接触当空气?#20449;?#24230;超过10%容易爆炸。不能与一氧化碳、氢气、汞、非金属、五氯化磷、氢氧化钾共存。

接触机会

造?#20581;?#32442;织、食品工业中用作漂?#20934;?也作为饮水处理的除臭剂; ?#37096;?#29992;作氧化剂、?#26412;?#21058;。在这些行业的工人均有可能接触。

侵入途径

经呼吸道吸入。

毒理学简介

大鼠经口LD50: 292 mg/kg; 吸入LCLo: 260 ppm/2H。

本品有强烈刺激作用。尸检见化浓性支气管?#20934;?#25903;气管肺炎。

人吸入中毒的最低浓度为57.25 mg/m^3。国外曾报告急性中毒2例,其中?#21171;?例,空气?#20449;?#24230;<51mg/m^3。

IDLH: +5 ppm [R23]

临床表现

接触二氧化氯后,主要引起?#20154;浴?#21943;嚏、气急、胸闷以及流涕、流泪等眼、鼻咽喉部刺激症状。吸入高浓度可发生肺水肿。

美国HSDB引用文献:

+... A CONCENTRATION OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE OF 5 PPM WAS DEFINITELY IRRITATING ... 19 PPM OF THE GAS INSIDE A BLEACH TANK WAS MORE THAN SUFFICIENT TO CAUSE THE DEATH OF 1 WORKER (TIME OF EXPOSURE NOT SPECIFIED) ... /INVESTIGATORS/ SUGGEST IN 1950 A MAXIMAL ACCEPTABLE CONCENTRATION OF 1 PPM ... FOUND CONCENTRATIONS AVERAGING ... BETWEEN TRACES AND 0.25 PPM ASSOCIATED WITH SLIGHT EFFECTS ON RESPIRATORY AILMENTS ... REPORTED BRONCHITIS AND PRONOUNCED EMPHYSEMA IN A CHEMIST AFTER REPEATEDLY EXPOSED ... SYMPTOMS WERE INCREASING DYSPNEA AND ASTHMATIC BRONCHITIS ... . [R29]

+Two adults ingested 250 ml of chlorine dioxide in water containing concn of 40 mg/l. Within 5 min of ingestion, sudden headache, nausea, abdominal discomfort, and light-headedness were observed ... effects disappeared within 5 min. [R31, 174]

+Industrially men exposed to low concentrations of the gas in air have been noted occasionally to suffer from irritation of the eyes and to see haloes about lights, but these effects have been minor compared to respiratory irritation. The corneas of workers seeing haloes have not been examined to determine whether epithelial edema is present and responsible for this symptom. [R24]

+A womangardener of 49 years of age suffered an inhalational intoxication from chlorine dioxide while bleaching dried flowers. Preparation of the bleaching solutions was associated with a sharp pungent smell, coughing, pharyngeal irritation and headache. Seven hours later increasing cough and dyspnea led to hospitalisation. Clinical findings were tachypnoea, tachycardia, and rales of auscultation;  clinical chemistry revealed marked leucocytosis. Chest X-ray did not yield any abnormal findings. Initially the vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec markedly reduced and the resistance correspondingly enhanced. Blood gas analysis showed hypoxemia despite alveolar hyperventilation. Administration of corticosteroids resulted in significant alleviation of complaints and in improved lung function with stabilization in a highly normal range, as confirmed by follow-up examination two years later. The chlorine dioxide intoxication had been due to pH level reduction resulting from an incorrect proportioning and handling of the individual bleaching agent components when preparing the solution. [R38]

处理

迅速?#35780;?#29616;场,保持安静及保温,并严密观察病情变化。

急性中毒患者必须卧床休息,注意防治肺水肿。如出现肺水肿,可参照<急性中毒性肺水肿的治疗>处理。

皮肤和眼部污染后,迅用大量清水冲洗。

标准

?#23548;?#31354;气卫生标准:

美国ACGIH TLV-STEL 0.83 mg/m3 (0.3 ppm)

美国ACGIH TLV-TWA 0.28 mg/m3 (0.1 ppm)

美国MSHA STANDARD-air: TWA 0.1 ppm (0.3 mg/m3)

美国OSHA PEL(所有行业): 8H TWA 0.1 ppm (0.3 mg/m3)

澳大利亚: TWA 0.1 ppm (0.3 mg/m3), STEL 0.3 ppm (0.9 mg/m3)

奥地利: TWA 0.1 ppm (0.3 mg/m3)

比利时: TWA 0.1 ppm (90.28 mg/m3), STEL 0.3 ppm (0.32 mg/m3)

丹麦: TWA 0.1 ppm (0.3 mg/m3)

芬兰: TWA 0.1 ppm (0.3 mg/m3), STEL 0.3 ppm (0.9 mg/m3)

法国: TWA 0.1 ppm (0.3 mg/m3), STEL 0.3 ppm (0.8 mg/m3)

德国: TWA 0.1 ppm (0.3 mg/m3)

荷兰: TWA 0.1 ppm (0.3 mg/m3)

菲?#26432;? TWA 0.1 ppm (0.3 mg/m3)

波兰: TWA 0.3 mg/m3

俄罗斯: STEL 0.1 mg/m3

瑞典: TWA 0.1 ppm (0.3 mg/m3), STEL 0.3 ppm (0.8 mg/m3)

瑞士: TWA 0.1 ppm (0.3 mg/m3), STEL 0.2 ppm (0.6 mg/m3)

泰国: TWA 0.1 ppm (0.3 mg/m3)

土耳其: TWA 0.1 ppm (0.3 mg/m3)

英国: TWA 0.1 ppm (0.3 mg/m3), STEL 0.3 ppm

保加利亚,哥伦比亚,约旦,韩国 参照美国 ACGIH TLV;

新西兰,新加坡,越南 参照美国 ACGIH TLV

参考文献

Gloemme J,et al.Health hazards from chlorine dioxide. Arch Indust Health 1957; 16:169.

 

    

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